“The ballots had been thrown; they were all black, and Justine was condemned” (72).
Voting was originally done using wooden balls that were placed into a box or urn. Ivory colored balls were used in favor of the accused, while black balls were used to condemn the accused. This allowed for a secret vote, keeping those voting safe from persecution. This method of voting was used until the 19th Century.
"Blackballing." Wikipedia. 5 Aug. 2008. 24 Aug. 2008
"History of Voting Machines." Glencoe. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.glencoe.com/sec/socialstudies/btt/election_day/history.shtml